According to the details, the court also imprisoned a US-Egyptian citizen and 36 others for life.
Badie was sentenced in March and is involved in some 40 other trials as well. The sentences are subject to appeal.
Hundreds of people have been sentenced to death in a crackdown on the Brotherhood following the removal of President Mohammed Morsi in 2013.
However, so far only one death sentence has been carried out.
The court session was broadcast live on TV.
The sentences are the final phase in the trial which saw Muslim Brotherhood leaders charged with encouraging members of the group to confront the state and spread chaos following the dispersal of protests in 2013.
They were handed down following advice from Egypt’s highest Islamic legbeal official, the grand mufti.
Two of the defendants were even sentenced to death in the Mufti’s absence.
US-Egyptian citizen Mohamed Soltan was sentenced to life imprisonment for supporting the Brotherhood and transmitting false news.
The son of Brotherhood preacher Salah Soltan, he has been on hunger strike for months and has received attention from local and international human rights organisations.
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