High rate of inflation, sky touching transport fares and bad governance has caused food insecurity in Pakistan. Although, Pakistan is an agriculture country, where farmers grow enough food though because of bad governance, those who grow food are food insecure.
Uncontrolled high inflation and transportation rates have caused a dreadful rise in food items’ prices, whereas climate change has been hitting Pakistan, causing droughts and floods. The floods had destroyed crops standing on lacks of acres at intervals last decade in Pakistan whereas droughts have reduced crop productions in rain-irrigated lands.
Controlling food costs is one among the largest tasks for the macroeconomic policymakers. This task is worrying as they have to consider variety of external, structural, and demand factors that are concerned in manoeuvring food costs, as well as international food costs, subsidies, and therefore the amount of food crops in this explicit year as well as in the past years.
A rise in food costs creates many issues for the poor, particularly on account of allocation of budgets on non-food things as well as health and schooling. Consistent with UN (2008) in Pakistan the poorest households currently need to pay 70 % or more of their financial income on food and their ability to satisfy most essential expenditures for health and education are severely being compromised. This may cause extra dropouts from colleges and one implication would be lower probabilities of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) targets of 100% primary completion.
Food costs are tormented by demand factors along with supply factors. Moreover, they’re also be determined by structural and substitute factors, as well as domestic and world markets. During this paper our focus is on distinctive the determinants of food costs in Pakistan. A household is considered food-secure once its residents don’t sleep in hunger or worry of starvation. Over the past twenty years there has been very little modification within the prevalence of deficiency disease within the population despite extra food availability and an overall increase in caloric intake per capita.
In Pakistan, giant family size is forced to expense 46 % of the family financial gain on food. Many studies have been conducted on the determinants of food costs, particularly when the recent increase in food costs. One among the 2 most significant demand factors that influences food costs is that the modification in eating habits of the individuals of rising market countries as a result of a rise in their financial gain. The people, who are enjoying higher financial income at the moment, have shifted to meat and dairy farm product that need a large quantity of grain feed for the stock, and therefore a decline within the production of grain for men.
In Pakistan, political economy, like other economic determinants, plays a very important role in food inflation. Smuggling of food items across the border, particularly as a result of governance weakness, hoarding of wheat and other commodities by the stockists when their costs are increasing remain the main problems, whereas anti-protectionist policymakers always believe that there’s no hurdle the system. However, limiting the export of wheat, particularly would be effective in struggling the problem of increase in food prices.
Food items especially wheat, have been hoarded as well as smuggled to neighbouring countries, especially Afghanistan. The failure of the authorities to prevent hoarding and smuggling has made the food prices more volatile. Inefficiency of the bureaucracy and the lack of accountability of the service providers will lead to a price shock. A high price of sugar due to hoarding is another example of the failure of the bureaucracy to control the food price hike.
Food stuffs particularly wheat, are hoarded and smuggled to neighbouring countries, particularly Afghanistan. The failure of the authorities to stop hoarding and smuggling has created the food costs a lot of volatile. Incompetency of the bureaucracy and the lack of responsibility of the service providers results in a price shock. A high price of sugar owing to hoarding is another example of the failure of the bureaucracy to manage the food price hike. In this condition, Government needs to take strict actions against smugglers and hoarders and must take care to minimize political corruption in this matter.